Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is one of the main pathogens causing nosocomial infections in the United States. Diarrhea, colitis, sepsis and lead to prolonged hospitalization and death. Mayo Clinic researchers say they have found a way to reduce acquisition of infection and reduce its frequency to a fraction of what it was.
The process requires constant daily cleaning of all surfaces of high contact with a chlorine disinfectant to kill the spores to clean in all patients in units with endemic rates of infection with C. difficult. The results were presented today at the Fifth International Conference on Health Ten-acquired infections in Atlanta, sponsored by the Society for Health Epidemiology of America, the Infectious Diseases Society of America, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and co- organized by the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology (APIC).
“The goal was to reduce nosocomial infection rates of C. difficult in two of our units, the highest incidence of 30 percent,” said lead researcher Robert Orenstein, DO “Our data show that we exceeded that. When the study concluded at the end of last year, one unit had gone 137 days without nosocomial infection with C. difficult. “The team had hoped to increase the time between hospital-acquired cases more than 20 days between infections.
New research at Oregon Health & Science University Vaccine and Gene Therapy Institute explains how a virus that has infected up to 80 percent of Americans can reinfect individuals repeatedly despite the presence of a strong immunity durable. The investigation is cytomegalovirus (CMV), which infects 50 to 80 percent of the population of the United States before the age of 40. Details of the new findings are published in the online edition of the journal Science.
For most people, CMV infection is not detected and not severely ill. However, vulnerable populations with immune deficiency, such as the development and infants, recipients of organ donors and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients, CMV is very serious and potentially life-threatening risk. Approximately 8,000 children suffer from disabilities caused by CMV each year.
“CMV is a type of virus that can infect a few individuals who are effectively already persistently infected by this virus,” said Louis Picker, MD, associate director of the OHSU VGTI and director of the immunization program is VGTI. He is also Director of the Division of Pathology and Immunology at the Oregon National Primate Research Center at OHSU.
Maurice Wilkins Centre scientists led by Professor John Fraser, University of Auckland and a team of scientists led by Professor Gregers Anderson of the University of Aarhus, Denmark, described how a protein from S. Staphylococcus interferes with the human immune system. Their results were published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA (PNAS).
In New Zealand, like many other countries, S. aureus is the most common cause of nosocomial infection. It also causes severe outbreaks in the community where antibiotic resistant strains such as MRSA is proving very difficult to treat.
Professor Fraser, associate director of the Maurice Wilkins Centre, says the study, the culmination of six years, focuses on a small protein called superbug SSL7 (protein Staphylococcal superantigens and 7). The team has shown that this protein binds to immunoglobulin A (IgA), an antibody of special pleading in your gut and lung. The protein also binds complement C5 SSL7 a series of proteins that “complement” the work of antibodies to destroy bacteria.