Arthritis is an inflammation of one or more joints, causing pain, swelling, stiffness and limited movement. There are more than 100 types of arthritis.
Alternative Name for Arthritis
Causes, incidence, and risk factors of Arthritis
Arthritis involves the breakdown of cartilage. Cartilage protecting music, allowing for smooth movement. Cartilage also absorbs shock when pressure is placed on joints, such as when you walk. Without the usual amount of cartilage, bones rub, causing pain, swelling (inflammation), and conclusion.
You may have joint inflammation for various reasons, including:
* An autoimmune disease (the body attacks itself because the immune system believes a body part is foreign)
* General “wear” on the joints
* Infection (usually caused by bacteria or viruses)
Often, the inflammation disappeared after the wounds have healed, the disease is treated, or the infection has cleared.
With some injuries and diseases, inflammation does not go to or destruction of long-term pain and deformity. When this happens, you have chronic arthritis. Osteoarthritis is the most common type and is more likely to occur as you age. You may find it in one of your joints, but most often in, your knees hips or fingers.
Risk factors for osteoarthritis include:
* Being overweight
* Previously injuring the affected joint
* Using the affected joint in a repetitive action that puts stress on the joint (baseball players, ballet dancers, and construction workers all the risk)
Arthritis can occur in men and women of all ages. Approximately 37 million people in the United States have arthritis of some kind, which is almost one of every seven people.
Any other type or cause of arthritis include:
* Adult Still’s Disease
* Ankylosing spondylitis
* Mold infections such as blastomycosis
* Gonococcal arthritis
* Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (in children)
* Other Bacterial Infections (nongonococcal bacterial arthritis)
* Psoriasis arthritis
* Reactive arthritis (Reiter’s syndrome)
* Rheumatoid arthritis (in adults)
* Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)
* Tertiary Lyme disease
* Tuberculosis arthritis
* Viral Arthritis
Symptom of Arthritis
If you have arthritis, you may experience:
* Joint pain
* Joint swelling
* Reduced ability to move joints
* Redness of the skin around joints
* Stiffness, especially in the morning
* Warmth around joints
Signs and tests
First, the doctor will take out medical details to see if arthritis or other musculoskeletal problems are possible causes of your symptoms.
Furthermore, a comprehensive physical examination may show that liquids collect in the joints. (This is called “effusion.”) Joint may be tender when gently pressed, and may be warm and red (especially in infectious arthritis and autoimmune arthritis). It may be painful or difficult to play the joints in some directions. This is known as a “limited-range-motion.”
In some autoimmune forms of arthritis, the joints may become deformed if the disease is not treated. The joint effort is the advantage of weight, untreated rheumatoid arthritis.
Tests vary depending on the suspected cause. They often include blood tests and joint x-ray. To check for infection and other causes of arthritis (like gout caused by crystals), joint fluid is removed from along the way and examined under a microscope. See the types of arthritis for further information.
Medical causes of arthritis depend on the particular, the joints are affected, severity, and how it affects your everyday activities. Your age and occupation will also be considered when you work with your doctor to plan treatment.
If possible, treatment will focus on eliminating the causes of arthritis. However, the cause is NOT always be cured, such as osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Medicine, therefore, seeks to reduce the pain and discomfort and prevent further disability.
It is possible to improve the symptoms of osteoarthritis and other long-term type of arthritis without medications. In fact, making lifestyle changes without medications is preferable for osteoarthritis and other forms of joint inflammation. If needed, medications should be used in addition to lifestyle changes.
Exercise for arthritis is necessary to maintain healthy joints, reduce stiffness, reduce pain and fatigue, and improve muscle and bone strength. Your training program should be tailored to you as an individual. Working with physical therapists to design individual programs, which should include:
* Low-impact aerobic activity (also called resistance training)
* The distribution of motion exercises for flexibility
* Muscle strength training
A physical therapist can apply heat and cold treatments are necessary and appropriate to your splints or orthotic (straightening) devices to support and align joints. It might be indispensable for rheumatoid arthritis. Your physical therapist may also consider water therapy, ice massage, or transkutaneus nerve stimulation (TENS).
Rest is as important as sports. 8 to 10 hours of sleep at night and take naps during the day to help you recover from a flare-up is faster and can even help prevent exacerbations. You’ll also need:
* Avoid holding one position for too long.
* Avoid positions or movements that put stress on your joints get added.
* Switch your home to make activities easier. For example, a bar down in the shower, tub, and near toilets.
* Reduce stress, which can worsen symptoms. Try meditation or user image. And talk with your physical therapist about yoga or tai chi.
Other measures to try include:
* Apply capsaicin cream (derived from chillies) to the skin over your painful joints. You may feel improvement after applying the cream for 3-7 days.
* Eat foods rich in vitamins and minerals, especially antioxidants like vitamin E. It is found in fruits and vegetables. Get selenium from Brewer’s yeast, wheat germ, garlic, whole grains, sunflower seeds, and Brazil nuts. Get omega-3 fatty acids from cold water fish (like salmon, mackerel, and herring), flaxseed, rape (canola) oil, soybeans, soybean oil, pumpkin seeds, and walnuts.
* Taking glucosamine and chondroitin – these form the building blocks of cartilage, a substance that lines joints. Extension can be found at health food stores or supermarkets. While some studies show that supplements may reduce osteoarthritis symptoms, others show no benefit. However, because these products are considered safe, they are entitled to try and many patients find their symptoms improve.
Medication for Arthritis
Your doctor will choose from a variety of drugs are needed. Generally, the first drugs to try are available without a prescription. These include:
* Acetaminophen (Tylenol) – recommended by the American College of Rheumatology and the American Geriatrics Society as first line treatment for osteoarthritis. Down to 4 grams a day (two-arthritis of Tylenol every 8 hours). This can provide significant relief from arthritis pain without many side effects of prescription drugs. DO NOT exceed the recommended dose or taking medication acetaminophen in combination with large amounts of alcohol. This action can damage your liver.
* Aspirin, ibuprofen, or naproxen – drugs anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are often effective in combating arthritis pain. However, they have a lot of potential risks, especially if used for a long time. They do not need to be taken in any amount without consulting your doctor. side-effects of a potential heart attack, stroke, stomach ulcers, bleeding from the gastrointestinal tract, and kidney damage. In 2005, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) asked makers of NSAIDs to include warning labels on their products that let users increase the risk for heart attack, stroke, and gastrointestinal bleeding. If you have kidney or liver disease, or from gastrointestinal bleeding, you need not take any medicine unless your doctor specifically recommends them.
Prescription Drugs include:
* Biological – This is the latest breakthrough for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. drugs, including etanercept (Enbrel), infliximab (Remicade) and adalimumab (Humira), which is controlled by injection and can dramatically improve your quality of life. including the newer biological Orencia (abatacept) and Rituxan (rituximab).
* Corticosteroids (“steroids”) – these are drugs that suppress the immune system and inflammatory symptoms. They are often injected into the osteoarthritic joint pain. Steroids used to treat autoimmune forms of arthritis but should be avoided in infectious arthritis. Steroids have some side effects, including abdominal pain and gastrointestinal bleeding, high blood pressure, bone thinning, cataracts, and increased infection. The most prominent risk when steroids are taken for long periods or high doses. Close supervision by a doctor is very important.
*- Cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) inhibitors – These drugs block the inflammation-promoting enzyme called COX-2. This drug class was initially believed to work as well as traditional NSAIDs, but with fewer stomach problems. However, numerous reports of heart attacks and stroke have led the FDA to re evaluate the risks and benefits of COX-2s. Celecoxib (Celebrex) is still available, but labeled with strong warnings and recommendations that are prescribed at the lowest possible dose for the shortest possible time. Talk to your doctor about whether COX-2 is for you.
* Anti-rheumatic disease-modifying – this has been used traditionally to treat rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune causes of arthritis. These drugs include gold salts, penicillamine, sulfasalazine, and hydroxychloroquine. Recently, methotrexate has been shown to slow progression of rheumatoid arthritis and improve your quality of life. Methotrexate itself can be extremely toxic and requires frequent blood tests for patients on medication.
* Imunosupresan – drugs, like azathioprine or cyclophosphamide, are used for serious cases of rheumatoid arthritis when other drugs have failed.
It is very important to take your medicine as directed by your doctor. If you have trouble doing it (for example, because of intolerable side effects), you should talk to your doctor.
SURGERY AND OTHER APPROACHES FOR ARTHRITIS
In some cases, surgery to rebuild with (artroplasti) or to change the joints (such as total knee replacement) may help maintain a more normal lifestyle. The decision to perform joint replacement operations are usually made when other alternatives, such as lifestyle changes and medications, are no longer effective.
Normal joints contain a lubricant called synovial fluid. In joints with arthritis, this fluid is not produced in sufficient numbers. In some cases, your doctor may inject the arthritic joint with artificial version of joint fluid. Synthetic liquid may suspend the operation needs at least temporarily and improve the quality of life for people with arthritis.
A disorder related to arthritis, some completely cured by medical treatment. Most of the chronic (long term) conditions, however, and the goal of treatment is to control pain and minimize joint damage. Chronic arthritis is often in and out of remission.
* Chronic Pain
* Lifestyle restrictions or disability
Calling your health care provider
Contact your doctor if:
* Pain in your joints remain beyond 3 days.
* You have severe joint pain that can not be explained.
* The affected joint is significantly swollen.
* You have a difficult time moving along.
* Your skin around the joint is red or warm to the touch.
* You have fever or lose weight unintentionally.
Prevention of Arthritis
If arthritis is diagnosed and treated early, you can prevent joint damage. Find out if you have a family history of arthritis and share this information with your doctor, even if you do not have joint symptoms.
Osteoarthritis may be more likely to develop if you abuse your joints (injure them many times or over-use them when injured). Be careful not to work too hard joint damage or pain. Similarly, avoid excessive repetitive motion.
Excess weight also increases the risk for developing osteoarthritis in the knees and possibly in the hips. See the article body mass index to know whether your weight is healthy.